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Strawberry - the favorite of all gardeners - certainly present in all summer cottages.
It cannot be said that she very demanding in carehowever, when grown outdoors, it does not give an adequate return on the effort expended.
Affected by weather conditions, illness, lack of heat, especially in the middle and northern part of our country.
A completely different result can be obtained by growing strawberries in a greenhouse on a personal plot. The benefits of growing strawberries and strawberries in a greenhouse are obvious. This will allow get several harvests a year, will significantly reduce the risk of plant diseases and its dependence on weather conditions.
Observing the required temperature, humidity and watering, you can grow a berry that has the most optimal taste and appearance, while retaining the maximum useful properties in it.
In fact, there are two technologies for growing strawberries - Russian and Dutch... But we must pay tribute to our inventive gardeners, who immediately figured out how to reduce the cost of Dutch technology.
The technology for growing strawberries in a greenhouse is as follows: the greenhouse is divided into beds (their number depends on the size of the structure) 1 m wide. Bushes are planted in the prepared soil at a distance of about 30 cm from each other. Can plant in rows or staggered.
This method gives a high yield due to the larger number of plants per 1 sq. m greenhouses. How to properly grow strawberries using this technology? Tiers are built instead of beds, on which the seedling pots are located. 1 pot - 1 plant. The number of tiers depends only on the height at which it is convenient for the gardener to process it. Benefits this way obvious:
- higher productivity;
- ease of picking berries;
- less risk of disease, since the berry does not come into contact with the ground;
- high quality of the products obtained due to the fact that a plant in abundance receives light, oxygen and heat;
- saving water for irrigation.
Russian answer to Dutch technology
Our gardeners were quick to reduce the cost of Dutch technology by offering an alternative to pots. in the form of plastic bags... Soil is poured into them and holes are made on top, into which strawberry rosettes are planted.
The bags can be placed horizontally, and you can make vertical beds out of them. This option has a significant disadvantage - it is the complexity of processing and watering... Nevertheless, this option is quite popular.
Choosing the right strawberry varieties for your greenhouse is half the battle. How to grow strawberries in a greenhouse and what varieties should you plant? When choosing a planting material, you should pay attention to the following parameters:
- the size of the berries and their taste;
- remontant varieties;
- neutrality with respect to daylight hours;
- the region for which the hybrid was bred;
- disease resistance;
- self-pollinated strawberry varieties.
If strawberries are grown for sale, then the best varieties of strawberries for the greenhouse are it is firm and not watery, with medium sized berries... It can handle transportation well and sells better than small or large.
The following varieties have proven themselves well:
Alba - an early variety with large berries and high transport qualities, disease resistant;
Octave has the same qualities as Alba;
Queen Elizabeth - remontant variety, sweet large berry of medium density, bears fruit not only on bushes, but also on rosettes of the same year, suitable for transportation, requires annual renewal;
Honey - large dense berries up to 45 g, has high immunity and is resistant to temperature extremes.
Alice - unpretentious, with good immunity and large berries;
Christine - early maturing, suitable for transportation.
Specialists recommend neutral day and remontant varieties strawberries for greenhouses that are unpretentious in care. In total, there are about 250 varieties of strawberries suitable for greenhouse cultivation.
First of all, the yield of strawberries in the greenhouse depends on the choice of the variety and the cultivation technology. When creating optimal conditions and proper care, the plant will give several harvests a year.
The following factors affect the yield:
- growing method;
- choice of a greenhouse;
- the quality of the planting material;
- temperature, humidity and watering;
- correctly selected fertilizers;
- disease resistance;
- light mode;
- correctly selected pollination regime.
Growing all year round
How to grow strawberries in a greenhouse all year round? Growing strawberries in a greenhouse requires certain knowledge and technology compliance. Then a good result will be ensured.
This is an important factor, because the greenhouse must meet such requirements as good thermal insulation, light transmission, strength and resistance to adverse weather conditions.
The most suitable options are - glass and polycarbonate. How to build a greenhouse for growing strawberries with your own hands, read on our website.
From its quality in many ways the final result depends, therefore, it is better to purchase it in proven nurseries. The second option is more reliable - to grow it yourself from already proven varieties. It is best to select planting material from plants grown in the open field.
To do this, select the strongest, well-bearing bushes during the summer. Mark them with a strip with an inscription. At the end of July collect the strongest, well-rooted mustache with a developed outlet. They can be transplanted to a separate place, so that by mid-autumn (around the end of October) they can be transferred to a permanent place in a greenhouse.
When growing strawberries using Russian technology, the soil is prepared as follows:
- the bottom of the prepared bed is covered with expanded clay or fine gravel by 5-7 cm;
- followed by a layer of sand from 8 to 10 cm;
- a layer of fertile soil is laid on top of the sand and fertilized with superphosphate and ammonium nitrate (10 g per 1 sq. m).
You can add peat to the soil, it will not only give it porosity, but also provide the desired level of acidity. In addition to these fertilizers, you can also add potassium chloride (15 g per 1 sq. M). In Dutch potting technology, the soil must be sterile, non-toxic and porous. You can use steamed peat with sand, coconut fiber, or perlite. The soil should be prepared well before planting the strawberries.
Do not use for strawberries land after potatoes or cruciferous crops (all types of cabbage, salads, radishes). The most suitable is the land on which cereal plants were grown.
Planting takes place from late October to late November or late February - early March. For planting outlets in the garden, recesses 8-10 cm are made. Distance between bushes should be about 30 cm. To avoid long-term adaptation of the plant to a new place, transplanting planting material is best done by transshipment, leaving more soil on the roots.
When landing you cannot cover the growth point with earth... Immediately after planting, the soil is mulched with sawdust to retain moisture. It is not worth covering the bed with foil in the greenhouse, this can lead to stagnation of moisture and rotting of the roots. The first days in the greenhouse should be maintained at a temperature of at least 25 °, later it can be gradually lowered to 15 °.
Photo of strawberries in a greenhouse:
Strawberries are a great capricious woman, therefore it is important for a good harvest strict adherence to the rules of care for her.
If you do not take care of pollination, you may not get a crop at all. This is the main challenge in strawberry greenhouse cultivation. In the open field she is pollinated by insects, with the help of wind and rain. For strawberries in a greenhouse, you can use the following equipment and methods:
- Organize wind with fans... They will create air movement that will carry pollen from one plant to another. 100 sq. m, 3 fans are enough. They are included only during the flowering period. A few hours a day will be enough. To grow remontant strawberries in a greenhouse, this will need to be done more often, since they bloom several times per season. In this case switching on must be done up to 3 times a week for 3-4 hours. Efficiency up to 90%.
- If the greenhouse is large, you can put a hive with bees in it. However, this method has several difficulties.
There is not enough space for the bees to leave, so they will have to be released. They can also sting. But the pollination efficiency is up to 95%.
- Spraying water from their stationary sprayers - organizing artificial rain. Due to the adhesion of pollen by moisture, the pollination efficiency is only 45%.
- In a not very strong wind and warm weather you can just make a draft in the greenhouse by opening windows or doors from opposite sides.
Temperature and humidity
If, after planting, it is permissible to lower the temperature to 15 °, then as the vegetative mass gains and the plant prepares for flowering, the temperature must be increased again.
For this period, it should not be lower than 18 °. During flowering you need to maintain a temperature of 22-25 ° in order to avoid falling off the ovary.
Important! Too high a temperature will lead to increased leaf growth at the expense of the quality of the fruit.
Humidity is an important indicator for plant development. After planting, for better development of seedlings, it should not be lower than 85%. When the seedlings take root, they are gradually reduced to 75%. During flowering and fruiting, the air humidity should not exceed 70%.
Lighting directly affects strawberry yield. This is especially important when growing strawberries in a greenhouse in winter. On average, in winter, the daylight hours for a plant should be at least 12 hours. You can lengthen it as follows, including artificial lighting:
- in the morning from 8 to 11;
- in the evening from 17 to 20 hours.
For the organization of additional lighting in the greenhouse, fluorescent lamps with a blue spectrum are suitable. For growing strawberries with light, you can mount directly above the beds... They do not provide heat and cannot harm the plants. You can also use mercury and sodium luminaires specifically designed for greenhouses. The sodium lamp has a color spectrum similar to sunlight.
The most convenient way is drip irrigation... The good thing is that fertilizers can be dissolved in water, the automatic system adjusts to the frequency and volume of irrigation. After planting and before flowering, use the sprinkling method. Then it is replaced with watering at the root to avoid water getting on the leaves. Strawberry watering rate - Once every 10 days.
When the first fruits appear, watering is increased up to 1-2 times a week in the morning or watered as needed. Collect ripe fruits before watering.
You need to feed strawberries once a week. Watering is done before fertilizing. Before the formation of ovaries do liquid feeding... Poultry droppings are often used diluted in a 1:15 ratio.
The following composition is also used: potassium salt (17 g), phosphorus fertilizer (20 g), ammonium nitrate (10) are diluted in 10 liters of water. Can use special fertilizers for strawberries, which are now on sale in a large assortment. Before the beginning of fruiting, liquid feeding is stopped.
Diseases and their prevention.
A greenhouse is not a complete protection against the occurrence of various diseases in a plant.
But easier to prevent than to cure, therefore, measures should be taken to prevent them:
- regularly ventilate the greenhouse;
- do not plant seedling bushes too close to each other;
- do not overflow the plant;
- fertilize on time.
- White rot. It occurs when the humidity is too high, practically does not heal. The diseased plant is immediately removed and burned. For prevention you can dry the air in a greenhouse;
- White spot. The reason for the appearance is excessive watering and high humidity. It is treated with Falcon, Euparen or copper sulfate according to the instructions for them;
- Powdery mildew. The reason is high humidity and low temperature... It is treated with copper sulfate or soap solution (4%). It is best to remove the diseased plant and adjust the temperature and humidity regime;
- Late blight. Affects plant roots. Sign - reddening of the roots may not be immediately detected. Therefore, if at the end of May the plant begins to dry out, it must be dug up and the roots checked.
Treatment with Quadrix helps in part, but it is better to remove such a plant and to carry out wellness procedures the rest of the landings.
Growing strawberries in a greenhouse requires costs - labor and financial. But the result is worth it. When everyone else takes the frozen berry out of the refrigerator, you can feast on it straight from the bush. Good luck and delicious bountiful harvest!
Watch a video on how to grow strawberries in a greenhouse: