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Eggplant grow well in open ground and in greenhouses. But the best yields will be provided by greenhouses, allowing you to take several crops per year. You can grow seedlings for greenhouses yourself.
Some gardeners prefer to buy it ready-made, which significantly speeds up the process growing, but increases the cost of vegetables.
To get a good harvest it is important to choose the right variety, monitor the watering and temperature in the greenhouse and fertilize the soil in a timely manner.
The main advantages of a greenhouse
Growing eggplants in a greenhouse has many advantages over soil:
- independence from weather conditions;
- the ability to grow any, even very capricious varieties;
- can be removed in a heated greenhouse several harvests per year;
- high humidity, which guarantees excellent taste of the fruit.
What varieties of eggplant are best for planting in a greenhouse? Early maturing varieties that do not need pollination are suitable for growing in greenhouses. It is best to plant hybridsspecially designed for indoor use. When choosing varieties of eggplant for a polycarbonate greenhouse, it is important to take into account many factors: the color and taste of the fruit, yield, the ability to store the harvested crop.
Every gardener has his own the best varieties of eggplant for greenhouses, among which the following are often noted:
- Purple miracle... Disease and pest resistant variety. The bush is compact, suitable even for low greenhouses. An early ripe variety of medium yield, dark purple, cylindrical fruits. The pulp is dense, greenish white, very pleasant to the taste, without bitterness. Ripe eggplants are very convenient to collect, they are practically devoid of thorns at the stalk.
- Nutcracker... A very productive variety. The bushes grow quite tall. Tall varieties of eggplant require a garter. The fruits are very large, bright purple, with dense white flesh without bitterness. The harvested eggplants are perfectly stored.
- Black handsome... In regions with a warm climate, it is grown in soil, but in the middle lane it is better to place it in a greenhouse. The variety is fruitful, early maturing. The fruits are brownish-purple, large, the flesh is tender and not bitter. Resistant to diseases, fruits are well stored.
- Bibo... Pest resistant variety with high yields. The fruits are white, round, very tender and tasty. The pulp is absolutely devoid of bitterness. The harvested eggplants are well kept.
- Marzipan... An early variety of eggplant for greenhouses. Very productive. The bushes are compact, the fruits are round, bright purple. The pulp is very tender, with a pleasant sweetish-fresh taste, without the slightest signs of bitterness. Eggplants are great for canning.
- Moneymaker... High-yielding variety. Fruits are elongated, rounded, dark purple. Small, elegant eggplants keep well and are very good for canning.
Which greenhouse to choose?
Eggplant can grow in a greenhouse with or without heating. The second option is suitable for summer time, the greenhouse helps to maintain a stable microclimate, protects plants from gusts of wind, nighttime temperature drops, hail and other vagaries of the weather. Seedlings are planted in such a shelter in late spring.
Residents of cold regions, as well as those who plan at least 2 harvests per year, it is worth thinking about building a capital greenhouse, covered with film, glass or polycarbonate and equipped with a combined heating system.
Most available option - a greenhouse covered with a film... It retains heat well, transmits sunlight. However, a fragile film quickly breaks and deforms; such a coating will have to be changed every year. Glass is more durable, but can crack under the weight of snow.
The best option greenhouse coverings - polycarbonate... It is not cheap, but it serves several seasons without any problems. By investing in such a structure, you will be able to harvest good crops and not worry about the annual restoration of the greenhouse. It is better to fix polycarbonate on a metal frame with a special treatment that protects the structure from corrosion.
Eggplant greenhouse can be arched or pitched... Wall structures are also possible, adjacent to the house, utility room and other structures. The height and size of the greenhouse depends on the capabilities of the owner.
Vegetables are best grown in soil, but some growers prefer shelving, increasing the usable area of greenhouses.
In order for the plants to develop well, greenhouses can be equipped with lighting. If the greenhouse is very large, recommended equip it with a system drip irrigation... Eggplant is a moisture-loving culture, such watering will help maintain the desired degree of soil moisture. Good ventilation is required.
It is better to heat the greenhouse in a combined way. Maintain the required temperature biofuel will help (a mixture of manure and straw, rotted and placed under the top layer of soil). You can heat the greenhouse using solar panels, an electric boiler or a fire that drives warm air through pipes. For express heating, heaters or stoves are useful.
How to grow eggplants in a polycarbonate greenhouse? Eggplant is not considered to be too capricious culture. They are resistant to pests, are fast growing, respond well to feeding. Even a novice vegetable grower can achieve success. The process begins with growing seedlings. You can buy it ready-made, but sown with your own hand has a lot of advantages:
- sprouts are stronger and viable;
- the process of transplantation and survival is facilitated.
Eggplant prefer light and nutritious soil with acidity from 6.5 to 7.2. Too heavy and acidic soils can cause root rot of young shoots.
Purchased soil for seedlings is not suitable. There is too much peat in them, which does not give the seeds the strength for full development. It is better to compose the mixture for planting yourself using one of the following recipes:
- a mixture of humus, garden soil and river sand (2x2x1);
- peat, garden soil, sawdust (2x1x3);
- compost, peat, garden soil, river sand (1x1x2x1).
The mixture must be calcined for the destruction of insect larvae and pathogens. After that, the prepared soil is spilled with a bio-solution of the "Baikal" type to restore useful microflora.
Superphosphate or other mineral fertilizers must be added to the soil mixture in a proportion of 20 g per 10 liters of soil. Instead of ready-made complexes wood ash can be used... During the growth period, the seedlings are watered several times with a solution of nitrogen fertilizers, which make it possible to ensure the formation of a bush with green mass.
It is most convenient to plant seedlings in plastic containers with cassettes. They retain moisture well and facilitate the process of replanting grown plants. The use of peat pots is undesirable.
The weak roots of young eggplants cannot grow through the walls, as a result of which the plants do not develop well. When to plant eggplant seedlings for the greenhouse? Sowing is carried out at the end of January or in February. For heated greenhouses, seedlings can be prepared earlier, plants for ordinary greenhouses are planted at the end of February.
To improve germination seeds can be soaked for 10-12 hours in a growth promoter, then wrap in a damp cloth and leave to peck.
The prepared seeds are sown in well-moistened soil. The seeds are not buried; they must be sprinkled on top with a thin layer of soil mixture. The seed container is covered with glass. Seedlings should be regularly sprayed with soft water at room temperature, moistening not only the ground, but also the air around.
For germination seeds need a stable temperature (20-22ºC), high humidity and bright light. It is recommended to arrange the backlight for 3-4 hours daily.
When the seeds germinate, they begin to harden, removing the film, first for a few minutes, and then increasing the hardening time to an hour or more. It is advisable to move the plants to sunlight and carefully monitor the moisture content of the soil. Weak sprouts are best removed, this will make it possible to grow only strong and viable plants.
Planting and leaving
The technology of growing eggplants in a greenhouse.
How to properly grow eggplants in a greenhouse? In a heated greenhouse grown seedlings can be planted in early spring... Seedlings prepared for moving should have the following parameters:
- age about 75 days;
- developed root system;
- the presence of 8-9 leaves;
- stem height up to 20 cm.
A clear signal for an urgent transplant will be the appearance of buds on young plants. Growing and caring for eggplants in a greenhouse is a painstaking process.
The soil in the greenhouse loosens, moisturizes, mixes with manure or compost. To reduce acidity, dolomite flour can be added to the soil. Ash and potassium sulfate will help improve nutritional value. If the soil is too dense, it is worth adding sawdust.
Planting scheme for eggplant in a greenhouse: young plants are planted at a distance of up to 45 cm, distance between rows - 60 cm... You need to carefully move the seedlings to a new place of residence, the eggplant root system is very fragile.
How to care for eggplants in a greenhouse? After transplanting, moderate watering with warm water is necessary, preferably in the early morning. Ventilation is recommended after watering. It is important to ensure that young eggplants do not get cold air.
For good growth eggplant needs fertilization... Top dressing is carried out three times per season, after the beginning of fruiting, nitrogen-phosphorus complexes are recommended. Organic fertilizers are not used after planting in the ground; they contribute to the large development of green mass to the detriment of the fruits.
Find out on our website which horticultural crops the eggplant is compatible with when planting in one greenhouse, as well as which other can be grown in a greenhouse.
Plants in the greenhouse must be protected from pests. Most often, eggplants are affected by the whitefly aphids, fruit mites. Keeping them safe will help air humidification and periodic spraying plants. Use clean water and mild insecticide solutions.
Found aphid larvae must be removed with a damp cloth. It has been noticed that in greenhouses equipped with a drip irrigation system, there are significantly fewer pests.
When the stems stretch up to 30 cm, they need to be tied to the supports. With the onset of flowering, it is necessary to increase watering and start weekly feeding complex fertilizers for tomatoes. It is recommended to harvest when the length of the fruit reaches 8 cm. Ripe eggplants have a shiny skin. Don't wait too long overripe fruits can taste bitter, moreover, a large number of hard seeds are formed in them.
Growing eggplants in a greenhouse can do more than just provide the family with delicious early vegetables, but also become the beginning of your own business. Having built a spacious greenhouse up to 100 sq. m, you will provide yourself with a stable income, and eggplant yields will grow several times.
About growing eggplants in a greenhouse in the video: