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All peppers: hot and semi-hot, sweet and bitter are thermophilic.
therefore the best way getting a rich harvest is a method growing them in a greenhouse.
Landing in a greenhouse is possible at an earlier date, and the harvesting of peppers in greenhouses can be postponed until a thorough cooling.
A small greenhouse for peppers that opens as much as possible in warm weather is the best way to grow. Large greenhouses are less successful for this vegetable, since pepper is a light-loving culture, and in the greenhouse, access to light is still somewhat limited.
In addition, the number of planted bushes is most often not very large, which means that pepper will have to be planted in the greenhouse together with other crops, and this is not desirable, because this culture requires the creation of special climatic conditions.
All this suggests that it is better to make a small greenhouse for pepper, using materials that are inexpensive and available to any vegetable grower.
It is quite simple to make a greenhouse for pepper with your own hands, and we offer you several simple options with a photo:
1. Greenhouse on a foundation.
For such a structure, a number of bricks, fastened with a cement mixture, are laid at a selected place along the perimeter. The greenhouse should be built in the most open place for the access of sunlight to the plants. The orientation of the greenhouse is chosen east-west, and the structure should open from the south side.
For the construction of the walls of the greenhouse, you can use a bar or old boards. A kind of rectangular box is built from this material on the foundation. The top of the structure is closed with an old frame or a frame made of strips covered with foil. To make it more convenient to open or open the greenhouse, the roof should be fixed on hinges.
The roof of the greenhouse is made single-pitched or gable. When constructing a pitched roof, one edge of the box is made 20-25 centimeters higher. The height of the box should not exceed 40-50 centimeters, otherwise the plants will lack light.
2. Tunnel arc-shaped greenhouse.
This type of structure is portable. It is made of metal wire or polypropylene pipes bent into an arc and stuck into the ground or fixed on a wooden frame. The distance between the arcs is 50-60 centimeters. The width is calculated so that a maximum of four rows of peppers will fit inside.
The frame is covered from above with plastic wrap or medium or high density covering material. From below, the cover is fixed with any heavy objects. You can nail slats along the edge, which, when opened, will roll up the covering material. The arcs between each other can be fixed with wire or wooden slats, this will increase the strength of the structure.
3. Greenhouse based on the frame.
This type of shelter for pepper is a constructor made of slatted frames covered with foil. Frames are fixed to a base made of timber or planks. You can make a structure in the form of a house or in the form of a rectangular box covered with a frame on top.
Instead of a film, polycarbonate sheets can be used. In this case, the strength and durability of the greenhouse will increase significantly, although its cost will increase.
You can see other greenhouses that you can also assemble or make with your own hands here: From arcs, From polycarbonate, From window frames, For seedlings, From a profile pipe, From plastic bottles, For cucumbers, Under the film, To the country, From PVC, Winter greenhouse , Beautiful cottage, Successful harvest, Snowdrop, Snail, Dayas
Not all varieties of pepper are suitable for growing in a greenhouse or greenhouse. For cultivation in greenhouses, you should choose low- and medium-sized varieties. The most popular greenhouse peppers are:
All of these varieties are resistant to the most common disease of pepper - top rot. They start bearing fruit quickly and manage to ripen on the bushes in unheated greenhouses and hotbeds.
Pepper is the crop with the longest growing season, therefore it is sown before all cropsgrown in seedlings. Recommended sowing dates - end of February.
The root system of the pepper is very fragile, so he does not like frequent replanting. Experienced gardeners recommend sowing pepper in separate containers.
Bottomless cups are placed in a box or on a pallet and filled with a mixture of soil and sand or peat (2: 1). You can use a store-bought potting potting soil mix.
The seeds are pretreated with a solution of potassium permanganate, then a growth stimulator.
Containers with crops are covered with transparent material and placed in a warm and bright place. When the peppers grow to 15-20 cm, they should be pinched... This technique stimulates the growth of side shoots to form a lush bush. A large number of shoots will increase the number of fruits on one bush.
It is recommended to feed the seedlings several times. The first feeding is carried out in the phase of three leaves, the second - 4-5 leaves. The pepper should receive the largest amount of fertilizer when the bush forms 8-9 leaves, since from this time the laying of flower buds begins.
An important step in growing seedlings is hardening. Containers with sprouts are taken out to the balcony for the day, at night they must be transferred to the heat. Also, peppers need to be accustomed to sunlight, from time to time placing it outside in a shady place. Peppers not prepared in this way will start to hurt when they are planted in a greenhouse, since it will be difficult for them to get used to a sharp change in the microclimate.
TIP! To increase the resistance of plants will help their treatment with the preparation "Epin", which increases the immunity of plants.
We plant correctly
When forming on bushes 12-13 true leaves comes planting time in the greenhouse... During this period, buds begin to set on the peppers, the root system is fully formed and ready for growing in a greenhouse.
To avoid unnecessary stress on the plants during transplanting, approximately a week before disembarkation boxes with plants is advisable take to the greenhouse... At night they must be closed, and during the day, depending on the air temperature, they are partially or completely opened.
Landing in a greenhouse can be carried out when the ground warms up to 15-16 degrees. In unheated greenhouses, this does not happen until mid-May.
Before planting, the soil in the greenhouse is specially prepared. Compost or humus, phosphorus-potassium fertilizers are introduced.
IMPORTANT! Do not put fresh manure under the pepper, this will cause the ovaries to fall off and there will be no fruits on the pepper.
For planting pepper width the beds are optimal within 1 meter, row spacing - 50 cm. Low-growing varieties are planted at a distance of 20 cm from each other, medium-sized ones - 25-30 cm, tall ones - 35-40 cm. Plants are planted in holes well spilled with warm water.
You can see how to properly and quickly plant pepper seedlings in a greenhouse in this video:
ATTENTION! Do not push the stem of the peppers above the level where they were in the cups. After planting, the soil should be crushed, watered and mulched.
All about growing peppers in a greenhouse
High temperature and humidity are the main conditions for successful cultivation of pepper.
That is why growing it in film shelters is most acceptable, since such conditions can be created in them.
To be successful, you need to do the following:
- Water the plants correctly. Watering should be abundant, always with warm water. Do not allow drying out, let alone cracking of the soil under the pepper.
- Ventilate in time. In hot weather, open the greenhouse as much as possible, since the pepper does not tolerate too high a temperature.
- Form bushes. For better lighting of the bushes, the pepper must be cut off, leaving 2-3 of the strongest stems. But there are varieties (Barguzin, Buratino) that do not need pruning. In addition to formative pruning, it is necessary to remove the lowest flower bud, as well as all shoots that do not have flowers.
- Feed regularly. About once a month, watering should be combined with fertilizing with organic or mineral fertilizers. But organic fertilizers can be applied only once for the entire period and in low concentration. An excess of nitrogen will lead to an increase in leaf mass, and the fruits will not be tied.
- Shade from the sun. Pepper is a lover of the sun, but not scorching or scorching, so on especially hot days it should be shaded. Otherwise, its leaves will turn white, and the flowers may fall off.
- Treat pests. Treatment with insecticides (Karbofos, Actellik, etc.) can help prevent the appearance of harmful insects. Destroy ants in greenhouses in time, because they are carriers of aphids - a pest dangerous for peppers.
- Protect from disease. It is necessary to closely monitor the changes beginning in the plants. If you notice any spots on the leaves or fruits, curling of the leaves, lethargy of the bush, then the pepper has contracted some kind of disease. First of all, treat the bushes with Fitosporin and feed them. Severely affected specimens should be removed immediately.
- Protect from wind and drafts. It is especially dangerous to open two ends in tunnel coverings. Pepper with such ventilation ends up in a draft, and this harms it.
- Loosen the soil. The roots need air access, so loosening should be done after each watering. Just do not loosen the soil deeper than 5 cm - there is a risk of damaging the delicate roots.
Secrets of a rich harvest
When growing pepper, it is worth considering some of the features of this culture in order to get the desired result:
- Never water the pepper on top, as it is a self-pollinated crop and this way you wash away the pollen, which means you reduce the number of ovaries;
- During active flowering, shake the bushes with a stick to enhance the dropping and setting of flowers;
- Do not plant bitter or sweet varieties nearby. The bushes are capable of becoming pollinated, and all of your peppers will taste bitter as a result.
In early August, pinch the tops of the bushes and remove any buds that have not formed an ovary.
This technique will allow the bushes to grow already formed fruits, since new ones will not have time to grow during this time.
Compliance with all these rules for caring for peppers in a greenhouse will allow you to enjoy delicious and healthy fruits grown with your own hands on your own plot.