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Pomegranate is a large southern berry that grows in warm areas and ripens by mid-autumn. It is considered a symbol of fertility, which is not surprising: under the hard skin of the fruit there are hundreds of tiny grains.
Despite the fact that pomegranate is a thermophilic plant, there are many who want to try their hand at growing this wonderful berry in Russia.
How to plant?
To plant a pomegranate, you need to remember the importance of heat for this plant. The sum of the average daily air and soil temperatures should not be less than 3000. In winter, the ideal temperature should reach 15 degrees.
Pomegranate is unpretentious to soils, but it is recommended to arrange a special drainage, which will prevent moisture stagnation. It can be crushed stone, gravel, expanded clay. Mineral and organic fertilizers will not be superfluous.
The planting pit for the pomegranate is the same as for other trees: 60x70 cm.
At the bottom of the pit there should be a layer of fertile soil (at least 15 cm), then humus mixed with earth (about a bucket in volume). It is important to water the plant after planting and cover the soil with humus or straw, so the soil will retain moisture.
If you plan to cover your pomegranate in the winter, plant the seedling with a 60-45 degree slope to the south.
How to care?
Heat-loving pomegranate requires proper and careful maintenance.
Loosening... In the first years after planting, especially during the growing season, it is imperative to loosen the soil.
Watering... Water the pomegranate sparingly, especially from the second growing season: overdrying the soil can lead to cracking of the fruit.
Shelter... In winter, you can pull off the branches with burlap. If the pomegranate was planted at an angle, it is carefully bent to the soil and insulated with earth: about 4 shovels of earth on the top, and a 20-centimeter layer on the whole plant.
If a shelter is not planned, the seedling is covered with earth by about 15 cm. You can also insulate the pomegranate with several tires placed on top of each other.
Pruning... The pomegranate should be a bush of 6 obliquely fan-shaped trunks. This allows you not to injure the plant when sheltering in winter. Interfering and unnecessary twigs, root and stem shoots must be removed regularly. Once every 20 years, pomegranates require "rejuvenating pruning": all branches above the ground are removed, which stimulates the growth of new branches and an abundance of crops.
Pomegranate propagates in two ways: seed and vegetative.
- Seed method... It is necessary to take seeds from a ripe fruit, place them on moist soil and sprinkle with about a centimeter layer of earth. The soil should not be allowed to dry out until the seeds germinate and reach a height of 3 cm.After that, they are transplanted so that the distance between the shoots is at least 4 cm.When the plants germinate and there is no space between them, they are dived again.
- Vegetative method (cuttings)... Cuttings of about 25 cm are cut from annual shoots of plants and rooted in a well-fertilized area. The cuttings are planted in a soil heated to 12 degrees, the depth is about 10 cm. One internode should be left on the surface. The plant will take root in late May or early June.
Collection and storage of fruits
In the south, pomegranate ripens in October. The rind takes on a deep red or pinkish yellow color. To collect a pomegranate, you need to guess exactly over time: ripe fruits immediately begin to crack.
Pomegranate fruits should be stored in a well-ventilated room with a temperature of +2.
There are many types of grants. The main criterion is the softness of the seeds. The softer the seeds inside the fruit, the tastier and better the variety, but this type of pomegranate requires careful maintenance.
"Pink Guleisha", "Red Guleisha"... One of the best varieties of pomegranate grown in Azerbaijan. Fruits are elongated, rounded, thin skin of pink (Gyuleisha pink) or red (Gyuleisha red) color. The grains are purple, juicy, and have a sweet and sour taste.
"Ak Dona Krymskaya"... Grown in Crimea, it has oval fruits and a creamy rind with red spots. The grains are sweet, with sourness. Gardeners consider this variety to be one of the easiest to grow.
"Kizil-anor"... An early ripe variety that is grown in Uzbekistan. Small fruits with pinkish-scarlet skin, grains are red and sweet and sour.
"Nana"... A dwarf form of pomegranate, which is grown as a home plant. Fruits all year round, fruit diameter up to 5 cm.
By choosing the right variety and observing these simple rules, you can grow pomegranates right in your garden and enjoy its delicious and juicy fruits.
We also bring to your attention a video plot on the topic of growing pomegranates in central Russia: