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Comprehensive information about the popular milkweed: types, care and cultivation

Comprehensive information about the popular milkweed: types, care and cultivation


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Euphorbia belongs to the Euphorbia family. In total, there are about 2420 species. Many of them are important for humans as a medicine. Some of them perfectly complement the landscape design due to their decorative appearance.

Euphorbia is a perennial. Its roots are powerful, prone to strong branching. The stem is bare. The spurge reaches a height of 25-50 cm. Shrubs, flowers and trees are found in all the variety of species.

Some varieties are ideal for home growing. Others are used in design solutions. It is worth noting that all species have one common property - the presence of milky juice.

Origin story

There is no one specific place of origin. It can be found everywhere in areas with a subtropical climate. However, Africa, America, the island of Madagascar are considered to be their homeland. These areas are characterized by a subtropical climate that is ideal for milkweed.

Description and characteristics

Milkweed representatives are succulents. Their leaves are juicy and rather fragile. Euphorbia is able to accumulate moisture both in the leaves and in the stem.

Names: what is it called and why?

The plant got its name due to the milk juice it contains. The scientific name for milkweed is euphorbia. The history of the appearance of this name goes back to 54 BC. At that time, the court physician of the Numidian king Yuba Euphorbos first used it as a medicine. As a result, he managed to save the ruler. As a thank you, King Juba decided to name it after his name.

Botanical characteristics

classDicotyledons
orderMalpighian
viewFlowers, trees, shrubs
familyEuphorbiaceae
genusSpurge
prevalenceSubtropics (Africa, Madagascar, America)

Structure

The most common species in Russia is wild spurge. It can be found in every vegetable garden. The stem is quite powerful. Large triangular leaves are evenly distributed throughout the stem. There are thorns at the ends of the leaves. Like all representatives of the euphorbia, it contains milky juice.

The root system is powerful, branched, can grow up to 40-50 cm in diameter. Flowers are yellow, monoecious, consisting of 10 male and 1 female flowers. It resembles a cup in shape.

Indoor representatives have mostly monoecious flowers. The flowers are devoid of sepals and petals. The leaves of the representatives of milkweed are arranged alternately, opposite or whorled. Solid sheet plate, undivided... Rare species have jagged leaves on the leaves. Branching is not typical for the stems. They are mostly straight, ascending.

The height of the stems in different species of milkweed ranges from a few centimeters to 2 m. Depending on the species, the stems may have thorns, leaves, or the complete absence of both. Milkweed fruits contain three nuts, which are separated by partitions. The ripe fruit cracks. The surface of the seed-nuts is smooth or uneven, the outer shell is hard.

Growth features

At home, spurge grows slowly.... However, when creating optimal conditions, you can accelerate its growth and get a beautiful ornamental plant. The size of an adult specimen is determined by its species. For some, the growth limit will be 2-3 m in height. For other species, the maximum height does not exceed 50 cm.

Root system

In all representatives, the root system is small, filamentous, located close to the surface. The tenderness and fragility of the roots require careful handling when transplanting, watering, creating a temperature regime. Failure to comply with any of these requirements will lead to the death of the root system, and subsequently the entire plant.

Difficulty growing

The requirements for growing milkweed are simple. Even novice florists can cope with them. It does not require frequent watering, transplanting. With the initial careful creation of suitable conditions (light, heat, soil), it will only need water.

How long does it live?

Among the representatives of milkweed, there are both annual species and perennials. Annuals are mainly found in nature in the form of weeds - wild spurge. At home, most are perennials. The average life span is 10 years. With good care, the lifespan reaches 50-70 years.

Useful properties of milkweed and its use in medicine and cosmetology.

How to properly care for milkweed at home.

Milkweed propagation methods: cuttings, seeds, shoots and self-sowing.

Bacterial diseases and pests: how to cure a plant and protect it from pests.

Types and classification

In different sources, the number of species and the classification of milkweed are different. Some talk about 800, others about 1600, and still others claim the existence of about 2000 species. Only 160 species of this plant can be found in Russia.

According to the latest phylogenetic studies, euphorbia is subdivided into four subgenera:

  1. Athymalus... The subgenus includes about 150 species. All are stem succulents and have small leaves. They grow mainly in arid regions.
  1. Esula... The subgenus includes 467 species. The main feature is inflorescences, which are characterized by the presence of cyatia (a single pistillate flower). In nature, it can be found in the tropics, in the northern and southern polar circles.
  2. Chamaesyce.
  3. Euphorbia.

Indoor views with photos

Each type of homemade milkweed is decorative in its own way and is noteworthy for flower growers.

Belozhilkovy

In appearance it looks like a palm tree, for which it received the second name "Monkey Palm". The stem of the plant is rather fleshy, with spines located on its ribs. The trunk is characterized by a thickening upward. At the top is a crown of elongated dark green leaves with white veins. A palm tree can reach a height of 1-1.5 m.
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Ribbed

It is characterized by high decorative effect. Undemanding to care. It grows in the form of a shrub with a powerful stem up to 1.5 m high. The stem can be straight or spiral with a thickening towards the apex. There are vertically located spines on the ribs of the stem. Flowers form at the tops of the stems in the form of small yellow-green inflorescences.

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Akalifa

This species is known as foxtail. The shrub is low, evergreen, the branches are strongly branching. The leaves are small, shaped like eggs. At the ends of which there are teeth. The flowers are bright red. Proper care will allow you to get 25-30 inflorescences at the same time.
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Euphorbia Mil

The plant looks like a shrub, decorated in the upper part with elongated leaves. It is better known among flower growers as the "crown of thorns". Cyanthia bracts are white, pink or yellow in color. When kept at home, it blooms when it reaches a height of 25 cm.
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Triangular spurge

Named for the trunk, which has three distinct edges. The trunk reaches 6 cm in diameter. The color of the branches is reddish-brown. The thorns are dense. Late-shaped leaves, up to 5 cm long. It blooms with bright pink-red flowers. Flowers are located along the contour of the main stem.

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Poinsettia

It is attractive for flower growers with its bright and beautiful flowering in winter. Because of this, it is called the "Christmas Star". Red leaves act as bracts. The flower itself is inconspicuous, small in size. It is grown at home for one or two years. Shoots are erect.

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Euphorbia "Head of Medusa"

The succulent has a trunk that thickens upward, and the branches diverge in different directions. It got its name from the hanging branches. When growing a flower in a hanging planter, the branches hang from the pot, creating an intimidating look, reminiscent of the head of Medusa the Gorgon.

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Euphorbia obese

Low-growing plant. It grows only up to 12 cm in height and up to 8 cm in diameter. The appearance resembles a cylinder with many stripes. The ribs on the stems are weak. The absence of thorns is compensated by small tubercles on the ribs. Succulent is a slow-growing shrub.

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Euphorbia enopla

The plant looks like a shrub with ribbed erect stems. Each stem has 5 to 9 ribs. Euphorbia is notable for its long spines, which reach a length of 5 cm. Initially, the spines have a red tint. As they grow, they turn gray.
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Garden views

Stone-loving

The perennial has reddish stems that lie on the ground and are lignified as it grows. The length of the stems does not exceed 20 cm. From last year's leaves, noticeable scars remain on the branches. The upper and middle part of the shrub has lanceolate leaves up to 2 cm long with jagged edges. The shade of the leaves is gray. Inflorescences, framed with burgundy leaves, are arranged in groups of 4-5 pieces at the tops of the stems. Blooms throughout June from the end of May.
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Griffith

The bush up to 80 cm high is formed by erect stems. Numerous processes form clumps. In summer, the foliage is colored dark green. In autumn, it takes on a yellowish-orange hue. A white vein runs along the center of the leaf. It blooms from the beginning of June with large orange-red flowers.
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Rocky

The plant is low, up to 20 cm. Small bush gives an openwork look to a small few leaves. The inflorescences are inconspicuous, appear in June-July. Decorativeness is given by gray leaves with white veins up to 1.5 cm long and up to 4 cm long.
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Capitate

It grows in the form of a low-growing shrub up to 5-10 cm in height. Very quickly forms a dense carpet. Blooms in June-July with small neat orange or yellow flowers. Shoots are located underground, which allows them to quickly grow in different directions, displacing the weaker ones.
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Scaly

Grows in the form of a spherical bush up to 40 cm high. Leaves are oval light green. Blooms in June-July. Inflorescences and bracts are yellow.
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Myrtle

Perennial. Height reaches 25 cm. Suitable for alpine slides and rockeries. The leaves are arranged geometrically, painted in a bluish-gray color. Flowering occurs from May to June.
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Swamp

The basis of the bush is made up of erect stems of red color. The bush is powerful, strong. It grows up to 1 m. On juicy green leaves there is a central white vein. The shape of the leaves is oblong or lanceolate. Inflorescences are bright red, large, appear in May and delight with flowering until the end of June.
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Mediterranean spurge

The plant is up to 1.5 m tall, evergreen. Greenish-blue leaves are oblong in shape. Blooms from late April - early May. Abundant flowering, long-lasting, light green inflorescences. There are forms of milkweed with yellow inflorescences.
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Longhorn

Perennial is characterized by strong branching of shoots. Stems are erect, reddish, covered with green oblong leaves. In June-July, pink or salmon-colored inflorescences can be observed at the ends of the stems.
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Edged spurge

Annual. Popularly known as an "alien" for its unusual appearance. The flowers are small, inconspicuous. Leaves, which turn white during the flowering period from mid-summer to the very frost, give decorativeness. Thanks to this feature, openwork is created.
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Almond spurge

The flowers are bright red in color, collected in inflorescences. Stems are thin, long (up to 60 cm), with dense foliage. Flowering occurs from April to June. Does not tolerate frosts below -12 ... -15 degrees.
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Cypress spurge

The shrub is prone to strong branching. It reaches a height of 15-30 cm when kept indoors and up to the size of a tree in nature. The branches are upright. Narrow leaves completely cover the branches. The flowers have a bright yellow-green or red color of the bracts. When growing in garden, it needs additional shelter in winter.

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Pallas spurge

Among the people, it is also called Fischer's or Komarov's milkweed, damn milk, a man-root, an outcast, a sun-gazer. The stem is simple in shape, covered with many leaves. It grows in height up to 30-40 cm. Leaves of different sizes and colors, which depend on the location on the stem. Brown scaly are located at the bottom of the stem. In the middle part, they are brown-green in color, dense structure and oblong in shape. The leaves are characterized by gathering in small whorls.
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Euphorbia multiflorous

Shrub grows up to 70 cm high. The plant is perennial, unpretentious, frost-resistant. Flowering period May-July. At this time, the leaves take on a light green hue. At the end of flowering, they are colored in a bright lemon shade.
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FAQ

A large abundance of species and subspecies of milkweed leads to the fact that novice gardeners have a number of incomprehensible moments.

What types of milkweed bloom?

What types of milkweed are perennial?

Properties

Milk juice is the main component of milkweed. In terms of its chemical composition, it includes euphorbon (22%), mineral salts (10%), amphora gum (38%). Milkweed roots contain ascorbic acid, tannins, resins, glycosides, alkaloid compounds.

Benefit: medicinal properties

The beneficial properties of milkweed have been known since ancient times. It is used both in traditional medicine and in alternative medicine. It brings particular benefit to people suffering from gastric ulcer and gastrointestinal disorders. In case of constipation, spurge will have a laxative effect.

The juice of the plant is useful for edema and worms... Providing a diuretic and anthelmintic effect will quickly relieve ailments. Burns and abrasions heal faster when using the sap of the plant. In addition, the juice can easily remove warts and other skin damage.

The resins and tannins that make up milkweed have antibacterial effect and are good at helping to treat diseases of the upper respiratory tract. Flavonoids have a positive effect on the liver, helping to eliminate waste products faster. Selenium helps to normalize the work of the musculoskeletal system and restore the elasticity of blood vessels.

Application in traditional medicine

In folk medicine, decoctions, infusions, teas, oils are used. Cooking recipes are simple. If applied correctly, the result will not be long in coming.

Leaf and stem tea

Helps in the treatment of kidney disease, cystitis, hemorrhoids, anemia and impotence.

Cooking recipe:

  • Take 7.5 grams. leaves and stems. Raw materials should be chosen healthy, young, without traces of damage and disease. Boil in 1.5 liters of water for 20 minutes.
  • Squeeze through cheesecloth folded in half and dry the raw material. To do this, in a dark place, without access to sunlight, spread the squeezed leaves and stems on a clean surface. The room where drying is carried out must be ventilated. Dry at +20 degrees in a natural way. In the presence of an electric dryer, dry raw materials in accordance with the instructions for the device.
  • Grind dry stems and leaves into powder by hand, with a mortar or rub by hand.
  • Dissolve in water or tea before use. Take tea after meals. At one time use 1 tbsp. l. dry raw materials.

Decoction of leaves and stems

Used as a sedative. To eliminate harm to the body, you must strictly follow the recipe for preparation:

  • Leaves and stems should be taken in equal quantities. It is better to select raw materials for the decoction from a young plant, without signs of disease. Pour the collected raw materials with water at the rate of 5 grams. raw materials for 0.5 liters of water.
  • Simmer over medium heat for 10 minutes.
  • Take before meals 2 times a day for 1 tbsp. l.

Root tincture

As an aid in oncological diseases, an alcoholic tincture of milkweed root is used.

The procedure for making a tincture:

  • Take a root from an adult and healthy milkweed without signs of dryness, rotting and pest damage.
  • 500 gr. pour vodka 10 gr. roots. The roots are preliminarily chopped on a grater or finely cut with a knife.
  • Put the mixture in a dark place for two weeks.

Apply the tincture according to the scheme:

  • the first month - 15 drops 3 times a day.
  • Then gradually increase the dose until you reach 30 drops at a time.
  • Then the countdown begins for a month until you return again to 15 drops.
  • The course is 3 months.
  • In severe forms of the disease, you can increase the course intake from 3 to 5 months.
  • It is not recommended to exceed the dosage in order to avoid harm to the body, instead of benefit.

Seed oil

At first glance, it sounds unfamiliar. However, castor oil, which is accustomed to use, is obtained from castor bean, which is a representative of the euphorbia family. The oil has a wound healing effect and is used for wounds, cuts, boils.

In inhalation, it is used to treat bronchitis, lung diseases, tuberculosis. In cosmetology, milkweed oil is used to accelerate the growth of hair and nails. When added to the composition of shampoos, creams and masks, they help to heal the scalp and strengthen the hair.

Anti-wrinkle mask

Eliminate wrinkles with a mixture of olive, castor and peach oils in equal parts. To do this, take 20 drops of all three oils. The resulting mixture is heated in a water bath before use, do not boil. The problem areas are lubricated with a warm composition and left for 15 minutes. Then they are washed off with warm water. The procedure must be carried out twice a day.

Mask for dry skin

10 drops of castor oil and 20 drops of peach oil are mixed and poured into a small bottle. Store the mixture in the refrigerator. Apply the composition daily as a cream.

Softening calluses

For the procedure, take pure castor oil. Before going to bed, you need to apply it to calluses and put on socks. Leave the oil on your feet overnight. Rinse off with warm water in the morning. It is necessary to carry out the procedure 3 times a week, until the desired result is obtained.

Agricultural applications

In agriculture, euphorbia helps to destroy caterpillars and bedbugs in the garden. For this, 1 kg of faded plants is crushed and filled with 4-5 liters of water. The mixture is boiled over medium heat for 2-3 hours. The resulting broth is filtered, brought to a volume of 10 liters. Spraying of affected plants is carried out in the evening.

Can it hurt?

Euphorbia is a poisonous crop. Its juice has a toxic effect. For example, contact with the skin may cause irritation and an allergic reaction. The first symptoms appear within an hour in the form of a burning sensation at the site of contact of the skin with juice.

If the juice enters the body through the mouth, disorders of the digestive system can occur. However, getting the juice inside will not lead to death.

When keeping a flower at home, you should follow a number of recommendations:

  • do not allow animals to bite off, tear off parts of the plant.
  • Place flower pots away from children.
  • Make sure that children do not try it randomly or as a curiosity.
  • Carrying out procedures with gloves.

In case of poisoning or the appearance of an allergic reaction, you must immediately call an ambulance. In case of allergies, you can take an antihistamine pill before the arrival of the doctors.

Euphorbia in the landscape

To decorate garden plots, euphorbia will successfully fit into an ordinary flower garden, rock gardens, borders and mixborders. Selected species will help create a romantic garden style.

To create rock gardens, ground cover, succulent species and lush bushes are used... For example, euphorbia cypress, which resembles a juniper ball, looks good between stones during flowering. Prefers sunny places and is undemanding to watering. Looks favorably against the background of coniferous neighbors.

Multiflorous euphorbia is suitable for decorating mixborders. Its erect, low stems up to 50 cm in height will create a bright color of the flower garden. The color of its leaves during the season changes from light green to bright yellow, and then to apricot color. They planted it in the center of the mixborder, surrounded by neighbors such as spruce, undersized juniper, tenacious, antennae and zelenchuk.

The romantic style of the garden plot can be obtained with any kind of milkweed. Altai, capitate, almond, fiery, stone-loving species are suitable. Achieving the result is carried out by emphasizing the necessary areas (reservoirs, lawns, gazebos) with milkweed.
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FAQ

Can chickens eat euphorbia?

Can chickens be euphoric or not?

Can euphorbia be given to rabbits?

Can spurge be kept in an apartment?

Home care

Even beginner growers will be able to care for and grow the plant, since the plant is not demanding to care for.

Location and lighting

Regardless of the place of cultivation (house, apartment, yard), it is worth choosing a southern or southeastern direction. Most of the plant representatives are photophilous and need good lighting. Some specimens, such as Mila, Palassa, white-tipped euphorbia, are protected from direct sunlight in summer. Otherwise, there may be burns on the leaves.

Content temperature

The optimum growing temperature in the spring-summer period is the range of + 20 ... + 25 degrees, in the autumn-winter time + 10… + 15 degrees is enough. Some species can tolerate a temperature drop of up to +6 degrees.

Maintaining the optimum temperature in the summer is carried out by placing the pots on balconies and loggias, by airing the room.

In winter, if there is insufficient heat, place it closer to the heating devices. If necessary, install additional heat sources.

How to care during a rest period

With the onset of the autumn-winter period, the plant enters a dormant phase. Care consists of the following instructions:

  • Watering is carried out when the soil dries to a depth of 3 cm.
  • Place in a cool place with an air temperature of at least +10 degrees.
  • Create sufficient lighting. If there is a lack of natural sunlight, you need to hang additional light sources.

Watering

Watering is carried out with settled water at room temperature. You should beware of excessive soil moisture. In summer, watering is carried out once a week, for cactus-like species even less often - once every two to three weeks. Leafy plant specimens are additionally sprayed daily with a spray bottle. In winter, watering is noticeably reduced or stopped altogether. The need for the next watering of the plant is determined by lowering the wooden stick to the very bottom of the pot. In the absence of soil on a stick, watering is carried out.

Humidity

It is recommended to create a dry climate for plants when the air humidity does not exceed 40-50%. For cactus plants, this indicator is not important. It is better to remove dust from plant leaves with a dry cloth or brush.

The soil

The soil for the plant can be selected ready-made. For plants, formulations for succulent plants are suitable. As a last resort, you can purchase soil mixture for cacti.

For example, Hera soil with a volume of 2.5 liters costs from 40 rubles. The main component is peat with the addition of sapropel.

In the middle price range, ZeoFlora primer can be noted. For a package of 2.5 liters, you will have to pay from 250 rubles.

A feature of the mixture is the presence of a moisture-regulating component - a zeolite-containing mineral containing enough macro-and microelements for the growth and development of milkweed.

Seramis substrate belongs to the elite types of soil... One package with a volume of 2.5 liters costs between 550-800 rubles. The mixture is based on clay and volcanic lava. Thanks to them, the possibility of high permeability of water is created, the elimination of the formation of dampness, and the supply of oxygen to the root system.

Self-preparation of the soil has its pros and cons. As an advantage, we can note the absence of material costs and the guarantee of the use of high-quality components. As a disadvantage, gardeners note the time spent on the search and preparation of the composition, the correct ratio of components. For the soil, take 2 parts of the earth, 3 parts of humus and 3 parts of sand. Expanded clay or small pebbles are used as drainage.

The correct pot

The container for the future plant should be chosen from clay. In exceptional cases, high-quality plastic is suitable. Due to the underdeveloped root system, the depth of the pot should be small with holes for draining excess water.

For plants with falling branches, growing in hanging pots is suitable. This will allow you to get the most decorative look of the plant. For example, the euphorbia "Medusa Gorgon", which shows all its decorative effect and effect in hanging pots. Trays are needed to collect excess liquid during watering. This will protect the windowsill from getting wet, and the roots from decay.

Top dressing, fertilizers

You need to fertilize plants during the growing season. The frequency of feeding is once every two weeks. Fertilizers with a high nitrogen content should be avoided to prevent damage to the main stem. As chemical fertilizers, you can use those intended for cacti or indoor plants. Organic fertilizers are used when planting plants. For these purposes, birch charcoal or rotted compost is used.

Pruning

The pruning procedure is carried out on those species that grow in the form of a bush. In the process, remove old, dry, rotten branches. Thanks to this, the bush begins to grow more vigorously.

The trimming procedure is as follows:

  1. A knife or pruner is treated with an alcohol solution to exclude the introduction of infection to the plant.
  2. To prevent the growth of branches, pruning is carried out with a red-hot knife. To do this, it is preheated over a fire or with a lighter. You need to cut off immediately, while the tool has not cooled down.
  3. Circumcision starts at the tops. Then they move on to the side shoots. It is necessary to shorten the upper and lateral shoots by 1/3 of the entire length. When shortening the upper stem, the plant will be short in stature. Cutting off the side shoots prevents the bush from growing in width.
  4. At the places of the cut, you need to remove the released juice with a sterile napkin and then sprinkle the place of cut with charcoal.
  5. After finishing work, wash your hands thoroughly with soap and water.

Spraying

Spraying is unnecessary for most species. Plants thrive in dry air. Plants with leaves need spraying. The frequency of the procedure in the summer period is daily, in the winter there is no need for it. The procedure is carried out with standing water at room temperature using a spray bottle.

Winter care

In winter, caring for the plant consists in maintaining good lighting in order to avoid stretching. There is no watering at all or, if necessary, the soil is moistened once a month. In addition, it is important not to overcool the flower in winter. The room temperature should be monitored and, when it drops below +10 degrees, provide additional heating to the plant.
Watch the video about caring for milkweed mile:

Bloom

Such types of milkweed as Comb, Belozhilkovy, Mila, Medusa's Head, Multifaceted, Multi-flowered can please the owners with flowering at home.

The regularity of flowering is different for each species. Most of the flowering period occurs once or twice a year. Some species can bloom throughout the year.

Flowering peaks in the summer months. Euphorbia grass begins to delight the eye with its flowers from early spring, and some species even on New Year's Eve.

You can achieve flowering at home by following a number of recommendations:

  • Create good lighting and keep out of direct sunlight. With a lack of natural light, artificial light sources are installed. Protect from direct rays of the sun by covering with paper or moving the pot to a safe distance where the leaves cannot get burned.
  • Regular watering, avoidance of excess moisture and prolonged drought.
  • Regular feeding with fertilizers with a high potassium content.
  • With a strong growth of the bush, resort to pruning without affecting the shoots, which may bloom soon.

Transfer

When growing milkweed at home, it may be necessary to transplant the plant into another pot. The transplant procedure should be carried out correctly, following simple recommendations.

When is it necessary, desirable and undesirable?

The need to transplant a plant into a new container arises as the root system grows. A new container should be chosen a couple of centimeters wider than the old one. It is worth noting that the flower grows very slowly. For this reason, a transplant is required every 2-3 years, young bushes need an annual transplant.

It is undesirable to carry out the procedure in winter and during flowering. This will prevent damage to the bush and prevent flowers from falling off. It will be optimal to carry out the work at the beginning of the spring period, when the plant has not completely left the dormant period and has not passed into the phase of active flowering and growth.

Requirement for soil and pot

The soil for replanting must be prepared in advance. This can be a cactus or succulent store mix. Self-prepared soil is also suitable. The soil must be disinfected with a solution of potassium permanganate to destroy pests and pathogens.

The pot is selected with drainage holes. The best option would be a clay pot. The size should be a couple of centimeters wider than the previous one.

Step-by-step instruction

  1. Carry out preliminary watering of the transplanted plant.
  2. Separating the soil from the walls of the pot with a knife, carefully remove the plant along with the earthen clod.
  3. Inspect the root system. If rotten, dried-up roots are found, remove them.
  4. Shake the old earth gently from the roots.
  5. Place a layer of drainage and soil on the bottom of the new pot. Fill the pot 1/3 full.
  6. Place the plant on the prepared layers and sprinkle the remaining soil over the empty areas.
  7. Tamp down the ground carefully.
  8. Drizzle with warm water with the addition of complex fertilizer.

Reproduction

Obtaining additional copies of a plant or updating an old bush is carried out by reproduction. The procedure can be carried out using seeds, cuttings, shoots.

How to root spurge?

The rooting of the plant is carried out in stages. First, the cutting is placed in warm water for several hours. Before planting, they are taken out of the water and allowed to dry. Places of cuts are treated with charcoal and stuck into the sand, tamping tightly. After that, the soil is poured abundantly with water and covered with foil or dishes. Airing is carried out once a day. For rooting, you need to maintain a temperature of at least +20 degrees... The rooting process takes several weeks. To speed up the process, the shoot is not kept in water for a couple of hours, but until the roots appear at least 3 cm long.

How and when to seat?

It is possible to plant young seedlings in a permanent place with the onset of warmth, when the threat of frost has passed. Usually, planting is carried out in May - June.

Seating should be done according to the following algorithm:

  • Choose a well-lit area with well-drained soil.
  • Plant the seedlings at a distance of 30 cm from each other.
  • Before planting, holes are prepared on the garden bed. For this, the earth is removed from the future hole with a garden spatula. The depth of the hole should correspond to the size of the earthen clod of the seedling.
  • Wells are spilled with water before planting.
  • Young plants are carefully planted in the prepared pits, without damaging the earthen lump, with the root system.

Propagation by cuttings

  1. In the fall, take a shoot with a length of at least 10 cm.
  2. Remove all foliage.
  3. Remove all the juice from the cut.
  4. Sprinkle the cut sections with coal.
  5. The shoot is placed in sandy soil and covered with a transparent container.
  6. Periodically ventilate and monitor the moisture level of the substrate.

Propagation using seeds

To obtain seeds, it is required to manually pollinate the flowers during the flowering period. The procedure is carried out with a brush or cotton swab by transferring pollen from one flower to another. Ripe seeds are collected in a gauze bag to prevent them from falling out of the pods.

Step-by-step instruction:

  1. Seeds are stratified before planting.
  2. At this time, prepare a light soil of moderate acidity and fry it in the oven.
  3. Previously, the seeds are kept in water for 2-3 hours.
  4. After that, they are laid out in prepared containers with a height of no more than 120 mm and filled with soil.
  5. Then they are moistened from a spray bottle and sprinkled with a thin layer of soil mixture.
  6. The container is covered with polyethylene to create a greenhouse effect.
  7. Until the moment of germination, the container should be ventilated and the condition of the soil should be monitored. Seed germination temperature +18 .. + 25 degrees.
  8. After the emergence of sprouts, the film is removed and dived after the appearance of the first pair of true leaves.

Self-seeding reproduction

Certain species grown in garden plots and growing independently in nature are capable of self-seeding propagation. No special agrotechnical manipulations are required for this. In place of a faded flower, fruits are formed, inside of which there are seeds. As the seed pods ripen, they open.

After that, the seeds fall on the ground on their own and subsequently germinate.... One of the species that can reproduce by self-seeding is the bordered spurge. The main condition is the presence of closely spaced male and female bushes. Otherwise, the seeds will not be fertilized and the bush will not be able to multiply. The only difficulty is that it is not possible to determine the type of bush in advance.

Reproduction by shoots sprouted from the root

The procedure is carried out in the autumn-winter period. To do this, take it out of the old container. Remove the old earth by shaking off. Examine the roots for rot and dryness. They are removed if necessary. After removing unnecessary roots, shoots with roots are placed in warm water. This will stop the juice flowing out. After that, the wounds are sprinkled with charcoal. Prepared shoots are placed in pots and watered thoroughly.

For plants growing in the form of a bush, propagation by shoots is well suited. In this case, the separation of young shoots from the old plant occurs.

Diseases and pests

Despite the absence of leaves and undemanding care and maintenance conditions, the plant can be exposed to diseases and pests. With timely measures, it is possible to save the plant from death and prevent the spread of diseases or pests to other plants.

Bacterial diseases: description, symptoms, causes and treatment

Diseases occur due to improper or untimely care. The main pathogens are fungi, viruses and bacteria. They all live in the air, soil, on domestic animals. Thus, pathogens are present in the entire environment of plants. However, the impetus for their development on them is facilitated by the wrong conditions of maintenance and care.

Gray rot

A symptom of the disease is the appearance of brown spots of rot on the leaves and stems. As the disease progresses, rot spreads to the entire surface of the leaves. Under conditions of high humidity, a gray bloom forms on the surface of the leaves.

Reasons for the appearance: The stimulating factors for the appearance of gray rot are waterlogging of the soil, air humidity, insufficient ventilation, excess nitrogen.

Treatment produced by fungicides Roval, Fundazol. Roval's dry powder is mixed with lime in equal parts and the places where rot appears are treated with it.

With a solution of 1 g. Fudazola and 1 liter of water are sprayed with spurge from a spray bottle twice with an interval of 7 days.

Alternaria

The first signs are concentric spots of large size, dark shades. The pathogen remains both in the soil and on the infected flower debris. Old or weakened leaves are more susceptible to damage.

Causes appearance: a factor of development is high air humidity, warm content and excess moisture in the soil.

For prevention and treatment, it is necessary to establish conditions of detention. Diseased plants are treated with Skor. Prepare a solution on the day of use at the rate of 3.5 ml per 10 l of water. The multiplicity of processing - 3 times with a break of 20 days. A solution of 0.5% Ridomil is sprayed 3 times after 14 days. Prepare a solution of 5 gr. preparation and 1 liter of water.

Stem and root rot

A sign of infection is the appearance of spots at the surface of the soil on the stem of the plant. The spots are dark in color and depressed. As infection progresses, the spots grow over the entire surface of the plant. In a neglected form, the stem is destroyed. As a result, the plant breaks and falls. The fungal pathogen remains in the soil.

Causes appearance: the disease occurs with an increased content of nitrogen in the soil, waterlogged soil, poor lighting, high air temperature.

The fight against the disease is carried out by completely replacing the soil, creating optimal conditions of detention, treated with fungicides Ridomil (the method of application is described above) and Previkur (poured with a solution of 3 ml of the drug and 2 liters of water once).

Powdery mildew

The disease manifests itself on both sides of leaves, stems and shoots. Powdery mildew appears in these areas in the form of a fluffy bloom. Areas covered with plaque acquire a brown color and dry out. In a neglected form, the plant dies. The pathogen remains in the affected area and can be airborne to other plants.

Causes: manifests itself in conditions of low plant turgor, dry air, strong drying out of the soil.

Diseased plants should be treated with Topaz preparations (1 ml of the drug is diluted in 2.5 liters of water. Three times spraying is carried out at a frequency of two weeks) or Fundazol (the method of application is described above). To prevent the disease, it is worth maintaining favorable conditions of detention.

Bacteriosis

The first signs are wilting of the plant, lack of flowering. Subsequently, weeping spots form on the stem and leaves, from which a cloudy liquid with a pungent odor is released.

Causes: infection with bacteria occurs through wounds resulting from mechanical damage, violation of agricultural technology and growing conditions, an excess of nitrogen in the soil.

It is necessary to fight the disease by establishing the correct agricultural technology and conditions of detention.

Mosaic

Infection manifests itself on the leaves in the form of a speckled pattern consisting of yellow, red, white, red-yellow spots. In the future, deformation of the sheet plate occurs due to uneven growth.

Causes: The disease is transmitted from diseased plants during propagation by cuttings or when the virus is transmitted by a pest whitefly.

To prevent the disease, you need to use cuttings from healthy plants. When pests appear, treat with Aktara insecticide. To do this, dilute 1 g of the drug in 3 liters of water. After spraying the plants, the room is kept closed for 6 hours.

Pests: description, symptoms, causes and disposal

Poisonous juice for some pests is not an obstacle to attacking plants.

Spider mite

This pest is almost impossible to find on milkweed, since it does not like plants that produce milky juice.

Mosquitoes

The mosquitoes themselves will not harm the plant. They use spurge for laying larvae. Their size does not exceed 0.5 cm. Young representatives of the plant are most sensitive to larvae.

Causes: waterlogged substrate, rotting processes in the soil, watering with mullein or aquarium water.

Immediately after the discovery of the larvae, unaffected seedlings should be transplanted from the diseased one. Dispose of damaged seedlings. As a prophylaxis during transplantation, the soil is treated with an insecticide or the top layer of soil is sprinkled with sand. Adult mosquitoes are caught in the usual way - with Velcro.

Shield

Adults have a dense shell. Females lack legs and wings. Males, on the contrary, have rather developed wings and limbs.

The appearance is facilitated by unfavorable conditions for growing milkweed, such as excess watering, lack of light.

They can be found on the plant in the form of brown tubercles. As the scale insects grow, they form a wax shield around themselves. Pests feed on plant sap, which subsequently withers and may die.

The fight is carried out with the isolation of the infected plant from the rest. Then the leaves and stems are treated with soapy water. Pre-covering the soil with polyethylene to prevent soap solution from entering the soil. Repeat the procedure for a month every day. Using insecticides will speed up the time it takes to get rid of the scabies.

Whitefly

In appearance, the whitefly resembles a small midge, which has grayish-white wings. The larvae of the pest are small and yellow. Most often they can be found on the back of the sheet. Adults and young individuals feed on juice. At the place where the juice is sucked out, blurred yellow spots are formed. The damaged leaves subsequently curl up and fall off.

Causes appearance: low air humidity combined with high temperature, lack of ventilation in the room.

Pest control is carried out with soapy water. With a large number of whiteflies, they resort to insecticides - intavir (1 table per 10 liters of water), arrivo (1.5 ml per 10 liters of water, I process it once every two weeks), decis (0.1 g per 1 liter of water).

Infusion of garlic helps a lot. For cooking, take 1 tbsp. chopped garlic and a liter of water. The solution is insisted for 5 days. Before use, dilute in a ratio of 1 tsp. infusion for 1 liter of water. Sprayed in calm weather.

Aphid

Aphids infect the plant not alone, but in whole columns. The pest prefers to be located in hard-to-reach places, mainly on young and thin upper parts of the plant in grooves, between thorns, in folds.

Causes: entry of a pest through open windows, bringing them in with a new plant or soil.

You can remove aphids manually, provided there are a small number of individuals. Washing off pests with a solution of water and laundry soap will also help to cope. With an advanced form of the lesion, 1 tablet of Intavir is used diluted in 10 liters of water. They are processed twice with a break between treatments for seven days.

Mealybug

Mealybugs are easy to spot. Its oblong light body looks like aphids. The pest sucks the juice from the roots. This leads to their decay and further death of the flower. The most difficult thing is the timely detection of the worm. It is often found by chance, during a transplant.

Causes: waterlogging or drying out of the substrate, low air temperature, lack of lighting.

Treatment is carried out by a thorough examination of the root system and immersion in Aktara's insecticidal solution (the method for preparing the solution is indicated above). The duration of the water procedure is determined by the instructions for the drug used. After that, the plant is planted in a new pot and new substrate.

Symptoms

Why do milkweed leaves turn yellow and fall off?

Yellowed and falling leaves indicate the wrong content. It is worth paying attention to illumination, air temperature, air and soil humidity. The most common cause is lack of water and excessively dry air. If it does not comply with the recommended parameters, you must take corrective action.

Why did the leaves come down?

The drooping of leaves is observed as a result of excessive watering. In addition to the drooping of the foliage, its color also changes. It becomes uneven. The soil should be reviewed for permeability, the pot for drainage holes and the frequency of watering.

Growths appeared

The appearance of growths can be caused by damage to scutes, which attach to the trunk of the plant and, as the juice is sucked out, are covered with a wax shield. The fight is carried out with an insecticide such as intavir.

In addition, rough growths are formed due to burns from direct sunlight. Diseased leaves should be removed. To prevent it, it is worth shading the plant from the scorching sunlight again.

Where and how can you buy?

You can buy spurge in various ways:

  1. Online store.
  2. Announcement sites.
  3. Forums.
  4. Markets.
  5. The shops.

Each method of acquisition has its own characteristics and disadvantages.

  • When buying through an online store it is worth paying attention to delivery options, payment. In the catalogs you can find a huge number of plant species: from ordinary to exotic. When ordering, take into account the time of year. In winter, buying is undesirable, since there is a risk of hypothermia of the plant upon delivery. In addition, blind buying does not protect against the acquisition of an infected or diseased plant.
  • On classified sites both individuals and organizations post their copies. This method of buying is attractive by choosing the right plant from several sellers at once. You can compare the price, plant age and delivery conditions and make the best choice for yourself. However, it is worth knowing that unscrupulous buyers can post a photo of milkweed in their ads, which does not correspond to reality.
  • On forums you can find rare and exotic plant species that are not found elsewhere. However, such copies will have to pay a good sum.
  • Market visit will appeal to those who do not like to buy a "pig in a poke". All plants will be visible. They can be immediately examined for damage and illness.Especially attractive is the opportunity to slightly lower the price as a result of bargaining with the seller.
  • In the shops, similarly to the markets, it is possible to purchase the product after examining it. It should be noted that prices in stores will be slightly higher than market prices. However, copies purchased from the store will be free from damage, disease and pests. For prevention purposes, it is recommended to carry out insecticide treatment after purchase.

Similar plants

Euphorbia is often confused with a cactus. The reason is the general external signs - thorns and fleshy filling. In addition, both are undemanding to watering and lighting.

Euphorbia is an interesting and peculiar plant. There are many varieties for both landscape design and indoor growing. Each species is decorative in its own way. Some attract with their leaves, others by the way the stems grow, others delight with flowering on New Year's Eve. It is not difficult to propagate euphorbia. It takes root well both by cuttings and by dividing the bush. Despite its unpretentiousness and simplicity, the plant is not protected from diseases and pests. Most of the ailments are caused by improper conditions of detention. Normalization of which quickly returns beauty and decorative effect to the plant.


Watch the video: How To Identify Common Milkweed - Asclepias syriaca (July 2022).


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