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Marigolds are a popular plant among amateur gardeners. It is grown in flower beds and in pots to add beauty to the backyard. They are unpretentious to care for, they love sunny colors and warm temperatures.
Bloom throughout the summer. All parts of the marigold serve as fertilizer for other plants. Flowers are used to heal the body and are added in the process of cooking.
What kind of plant is this, what family does it belong to?
Marigolds are both annuals and perennials, depending on the variety. Comes from the Asteraceae family, or Compositae. The homeland of its origin is America, on the territory of which most species still grow. Then the plant began to spread to other countries. First, in the 17th century. was brought to Spain, then it got to all the countries of Europe. Then to Russia, Asia and other countries.
What it looks like - description, photo
The culture is a small bush with bright yellow or orange flowers and lush greenery.
During flowering, the plant emits a specific smell, reminiscent of aster. But it's not just the flowers that smell, the scent also comes from the leaves. True, not everyone likes this smell.
- Petals... The inflorescences form baskets that have a varied palette of vibrant colors:
- reddish brown;
Medium-sized head with a cylindrical blanket. Consists of leaves fused together and arranged in one row. The resulting fruit is a flattened dark brown or black achene. The seeds are similar for about 3-4 years.
- Leaves... Cirro-dissected or pinnately-spaced. Whole ones are rare. Mostly they have a jagged structure. The color is light or dark green.
- Root system... Rod type.
- Grass or bush? Marigolds have a structure characteristic of a bush. There are three types of plants that differ from each other in stem height:
- Erect - reach a height of 40-100 cm, terry inflorescences, 7-15 cm in diameter.
- Rejected - 20-40 cm, double and non-double, diameter 4-7 cm.
- Thin-leaved - 20-30 cm, non-double, 2 cm in diameter.
The bush of the plant can be both spreading and compact.
In the photo below you can see how the black shaves look and the compositions from them in the flowerbed:
Scientific and other names
Marigolds have a Latin name - Tagétes. It was given to the plant by Karl Linnaeus in honor of the name of the Etruscan god Tages. There are also other names that are common in use:
- Chernobrivtsi - this name is often used on the territory of Ukraine, and is also common among residents of Russia and the CIS countries.
- Velvet Is an almost identical sounding word.
- Turkish carnation - in Germany.
- Mary's Gold - in England.
All the names that are used to designate a flower are applicable, found in the literature and for describing a plant. However, to the question of how the plant is correctly called - tagetes, velvet, black-shaved - the answer is unambiguous: the correct name is Latin.
Benefit and harm
In addition to decorative properties, the plant has a number of useful qualities. The flower heads are dried and used in folk medicine for the prevention and treatment of many diseases.
- Used as a diuretic and decongestant. Used for inflammatory diseases of the genitourinary system.
- Increases perspiration. Indispensable for febrile conditions associated with colds.
- Acts as a bactericidal agent. An infusion of marigolds gargle with inflammation in it. And also used for helminthic invasions.
- Making infusions or adding a plant as an additional ingredient to tea can affect the nervous system. She calms down and resumes her normal work. Marigold tea helps relieve stress after a hard day's work and helps with insomnia.
The plant is also used in cooking. Due to its rich aroma, it can replace some spices, in particular saffron. Amateur cooks also know that adding marigolds to dishes can change their color. They become pleasantly warm.
The inflorescences contain essential oils, which are applied to cosmetology and are used in the manufacture of alcoholic beverages.
You can read about all the intricacies of using marigolds in folk medicine, cosmetology and cooking here.
Use as a siderat
In some places of the personal plot, where the soil lacks nutrients, marigolds are used as green manure. For this, a plant is planted and its growth is monitored. When the marigolds are 2 months old, they are pulled out and buried in the soil, which needs fertilization.
The plant benefits:
- the green part has a disinfecting effect on the soil, killing all harmful microorganisms;
- saturates the earth with organic substances, trace elements and nitrogen.
Enriched soil will not need such fertilization for several years. This place grows well:
A decoction is made on the basis of the plant, which is sprayed on the plants. The specific smell repels insects and other pests. Marigold compost not only nourishes the soil, but also prevents the occurrence of diseases in plants that grow in this place.
The variety includes several varieties of marigolds. Annual plants include:
- Kilimanjaro... This is a hybrid variety. The bushes grow up to 45-50 cm. The main stem is very strong and stands out strongly from the bush. The flowering period lasts from early summer to late September.
- Eyes of the Tiger... Height 30-35 cm. The flowers are bright, reminiscent of the color of a tiger. It is characterized by a long flowering period and does not require any special care.
- Red gem... The bushes resemble a ball and look very neat. The flower is large and begins to bloom in early summer and ends in early autumn.
- Antigua... The bush is low up to 20-25 cm.The flower is terry and large, reaches 7-8 cm.
Perennial plants include:
- Bonanza... It reaches a height of 30 cm. Flowers are double-type, 5-6 cm in diameter. It blooms early in early May.
- Harmony... It has a very beautiful flower color, which consists of two primary colors. More yellow in the middle, and dark orange with a brown tint around the edges.
- Bolero... It is characterized by very fast growth. After planting, it reaches a flowering period of 1.5 months. Dissolves flowers in early May. This variety is very drought tolerant and unpretentious to the composition of the soil.
Different varieties can be planted next to each other, creating great color compositions.
You will find more information about annual and perennial marigolds in a separate material, and here you can read about low-growing varieties that serve as an excellent decoration for flower beds.
Basic rules of care
Marigolds are a thermophilic plant that blooms all summer. Some varieties begin flowering as early as May and finish in early autumn. To care for him, you should adhere to the rules:
- Do not overmoisten the soil too much so as not to cause rotting of the roots.
- It is worth making sure that there is no high nitrogen content in the ground. This substance affects the green part of the bush. The leaves become large and juicy. But flowers do not form or they become very small.
- The plant loves sunny colors. Blooming stops when in the shade.
- Not afraid of winds and drafts.
- Before planting and during the entire life of the plant, you do not need to fertilize the soil and make additional fertilizing. Otherwise, the bush will grow rapidly, but inflorescences will not form.
All plant care consists in:
- periodic weeding from weeds;
- removing dried parts of marigolds;
- thinning so that all parts of the plant have access to light.
Marigolds do not tolerate low temperatures and may die. Optimal ambient weather should be between +18 and +23 ° С.
The plant can reproduce in several ways:
- self seeding;
- planting seeds (read here how to properly collect marigold seeds and ensure their storage);
- rooting of the cutting;
- division of the bush.
Marigolds are planted in two ways:
- The seeds are immediately planted in open ground in May, when the weather returns to normal.
- Furrows are made 5 cm deep.The distance between the furrows is at least 10 cm.
- Seeds are sprinkled into the furrow, sprinkled with earth and watered.
If cold occurs, then the sprouts are covered with a plastic bag or special covering material. After 1.5-2 weeks after planting, the sprouts dive.
We offer you to watch a video about the features of growing marigolds using the seed method:
This method is suitable for planting plants in a permanent place at an earlier date. The seeds are first planted in the greenhouse in March. If planting boxes are used, there must be drainage at the bottom. Seedlings dive if they are thickened. The plant is transplanted to a permanent place at any stage of growth., even during flowering.
Marigolds tolerate any transplant well. The earliest stage suitable for transplantation is the period when 3-4 leaves appear on the sprout.
We suggest watching a video on how to grow marigolds using the seedling method:
Diseases and pests
The plant has a specific odor that drives away many insects and pests. However, snails, slugs and caterpillars appear on the plant when the soil is too waterlogged and the root system cannot cope, begins to rot (you can read about the ways of pest control on marigolds here).
Diseases that affect marigolds most often:
- gray rot;
- rotting roots;
- spider mite;
It is imperative to normalize watering and start treating diseases with folk remedies or, in case of severe damage, with ready-made purchases.
Often gardeners are faced with the problem of drying marigolds. Why this happens and how to save the plant, we talked about in a separate article.
What similar plants are there?
There are several varieties of flowers that resemble marigolds:
Also, the plant is often confused with saffron. Growing marigolds on a personal plot, you can make it not only beautiful, but also use the plant with benefit. On its basis, compost and fertilizer are prepared to enrich the soil with nutrients. Marigolds are used for prevention and, as an adjuvant, for the treatment of many diseases. The plant is easy to care for, you just need to follow the watering regime.